American Indian Sports Team Mascots

Change the Mascot is a national campaign to end the use of the racial slur “redsk*ns” as the mascot and name of the NFL team in Washington, D.C.  Launched by the Oneida Indian Nation, the campaign calls upon the NFL and Commissioner Roger Goodell to do the right thing and bring an end to the use of the racial epithet.

>>> Change the Mascot  <<<

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The Spanish Fork Press, July 22, 1909
"For many years there had been suspended from a smoke-stained beam...a trophy of the early days he had spent on the shore of the lake.  It was an Indian's scalp."

"'You ask me why I keep that thing in the house?   When I first came here...I hadn't but one white man for a neighbor and he lived two miles away...But I had plenty of another kind.  There were wild beasts and savages on all sides, and there were times when they both gave me lots of trouble.   With the beasts I could get along pretty well...But with the redskins it was different.  It wasn't no use to try and thin them out, although there was times when I had to try my hand at it...You never could tell for a certainty when they were friendly to you or when they were waiting for a good chance to take your scalp....The redskin looked as ugly as p'izen.  "'White man let it alone or Injun have his scalp' he cried, as he drew his knife."  'You'll have to take it first, you thieving redskin', said I."      From the Library of Congress -  The Spanish Fork Press, July 22, 1909  

This 1909 story from Utah  illustrates how the dehumanizing ethnic slur exploited by the Washington, D.C., NFL team was used in popular culture,  the legacy of which continues to this day.   
Besides being a form of symbolic slavery that allows users to define, exploit, and manipulate concepts about both historic and living Native Peoples, the institutionalized use of stereotypical "Indian" sports team tokens may also be thought to serve as symbolic war trophies.

Complete Text United States Commission on Civil Rights  Position Statement on the
Use of Native American Images and Nicknames as Sports Symbols
Summary of the American Psychological Association  Resolution Recommending Retirement of American Indian Mascots
National Congress  of American Indians Position Statement  
"Ending the Legacy of Racism in Sports & the Era of Harmful 'Indian' Sports Mascots
The NCAI is the largest, oldest, and most representative of all American Indian advocacy organizations || "Proud to Be"  2 minute NCAI video about American Indians and "Redskins"
United South and Eastern Tribes, Inc. (USET)  resolution calling on the National Football League to end the use of the Washington, D.C.  racially offensive slur team name.   USET

Inter-Tribal mascot resolution by the Seminole, Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Muskogee Nations  "representing over 400,000 people throughout the United States"

Resolution by the American Counseling Association calling for the elimination of stereotypic American Indian imagery Council of the American Sociological Association Statement  on Discontinuing the Use of Native American Nicknames, Logos and Mascots in Sport
National Indian Education Association resolution calling "for the immediate elimination of race-based Indian logos, mascots, and names from educational institutions throughout the Nation."

World Wide Web Exclusive!! 
 
Of Polls and Race Prejudice: Sports Illustrated "Errant 'Indian Wars'"  also see
11 Reasons to Ignore the 10-Year-Old Annenberg Survey 
About the Washington Football Team’s Offensive Name
   (Pub. Feb. 2014)

Educators' Resources
Scholarly articles, resolutions, 
school related material
Dozens of Resolutions and 
More Educator Resources
Psychological aspects 
A summary of some primary psychological issues related to the use of "Indian" sports team tokens
Frequently Asked Questions 
"There is today no single word more offensive to Indian people then the term "redskins," a racial epithet..."     Vine Deloria Jr. 

 

"Offensive Slang: Used as a disparaging term for a Native American"  

"dated:  offensive an American Indian" 

Slang: "Often Disparaging and Offensive"     

Yahoo Education  

Oxford Dictionaries    Dictionary.com  
"An American Indian: now considered by many to be an offensive term" 

"Offensive Slang:  "Used as a disparaging term for a Native American"

"usually offensive"   

Your Dictionary   

 The Free Dictionary

 Mirriam-Webster

How Hollywood stereotyped the Native Americans

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Oklahoma  Anti-Discriminatory  Mascot Act 

From Disney's 1953 Children's Cartoon Movie "Peter Pan"  "What Makes the Redman Red"   AND   Eight Videos About Native Mascots, From the Academic to Will Ferrell

 

Bing Search for Recent American Indian Sports Team Mascots Related 
News Article

>>> Redsk*n Article Archives from <<<
>>> Indian Country Today <<<

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Washington NFL team's 
"Lone Star Dietz" was  a fraud

Team's first owner, George Preston Marshall, was an avowed racist and proud segregationist whose change of team name has earned him the label of "the most notable and influential racist in NFL history."

Timeline: A Century of Racist Sports Team Names

Salon - Nothing scarier than a nervous white man: The “Redsk*ns” debate is really about white privilege  The debate about the Washington Redsk*ns name is all wrong: It's really a symbol of white fear in a changing nation

Google Search for Recent American Indian Sports Team Mascots Related 
News Article

"What is needed down there is some wholesome discipline for rampant redskins.  The proportion of flour, bacon and blankets issued to them is out of the proportion to the metallic cartridges administered in the way that would do them the most good."

From the Library of Congress: 
St. Paul Daily Globe., June 24, 1885

Oneida Sponsored 30-Page Study Yields Scientific Evidence Showing "Indian" mascots Harm Native Americans

06/04/14 - Survey Shows 67 Percent of Native Americans Say ‘Redskins’ Is Offensive      Washington, D.C./National
The survey's findings from The Center for Indigenous Peoples Studies at California State University, San Bernardino

                                                         Oct. 2013 Washington, D.C. Poll Results 
* 59% Agreed that if referred to as a "redsk*n" a Native American person has the right to feel offended.
* 55% Stated that as a fan  it would not make any difference to them if the Washington NFL team changed its name.
* 58% Stated they would feel comfortable if  the Washington NFL team changed its name.


In a 2001 survey by Indian Country Today, 81 percent of respondents indicated use of American Indian names, symbols and mascots are predominantly offensive and deeply disparaging to Native Americans.

"28 schools in 18 states were once the Redskins, but now currently use another mascot.   Capital News Service fact‒checked  data and found that the Washington Redskins had overstated the number of schools using the name."

Dear Dan Snyder, Bruce Allen, Roger Goodell, NFL, MLB, and all relevant others large and small:   

        So-called "good" intentions or "context" do not matter one bit when the final outcomes arising from the institutionalized, race-related practices you clearly endorse and promote have negative impacts on real, living American Indian people, especially children, adolescents and teens.  

        It is one thing to claim innocent ignorance concerning such things.   It is quite another to continue the practices after having been told for years by many highly respected American Indian, civil rights, religious, and education organizations about the problems such actions, and by extension, you now personally cause.    The damaging practices have therefore become willful on your part and no amount of denials, public relations gimmicks, cherry picking, high-priced lawyers or slick rationalizations can change that.     Such tangible actions speak much louder than hollow, even if genuinely well-meaning words about "tradition" and "showing respect."   How can you be "honoring" someone when they are telling you that what you're doing is hurtful to them?  

        The long overdue time has come to do the right and honorable thing.   Stop stereotyping,  dehumanizing, and exploiting American Indian peoples for your sports entertainment, self-inflation, and financial gain.  Stop bringing shame on yourselves, your leagues, teams, schools, communities, and our nation.   The embarrassment and humiliation you cause yourselves will only increase and get worse the longer you delay.   Time is not your ally but rather something that works against you.

        Get on the right side of history.   Embrace progress.    Promote justice and unity.   American Indian peoples past and present are not mascots for big business or fun and games.      Retire your outdated, harmful, race-related practices now!

>>> NEWS <<<

NFL team stripped of trademarks for ‘disparaging’ name

11/23/14 - Levi’s Stadium protesters urge Washington Redskins to change name         California/Washington, D.C./National

11/20/14 - Poll: 83% would not call Native American a 'redskin'          Washington, D.C./National

11/17/14 - Change the Name protest planned for NFL 49ers game against Washington          California/Washington, D.C./National

11/17/14 - Why Va. tribes have stayed out of Redskins name controversy         Virginia/Washington, D.C./National
Fear of political backlash with negative consequences is of concern

11/17/14 - Washington Redskins News: Team Self-Destructing As RG3 & DeSean Jackson Rip Teammates          Washington, D.C./National

11/15/14 - Ex-Navy SEAL who revealed he killed Osama bin Laden gives Redskins’ team big pre-game pep talk          Washington, D.C./National

11/15/14 - NFL Flagged With Another Challenge To Tax-Exempt Status Because Of Redskins          Washington, D.C./National

11/09/14 - When will NFL take a stand on Redskins nickname?           Washington, D.C./National

11/04/14 - Toxic Atmosphere Surrounding Redskins Is Turning the Franchise into a Joke           Washington, D.C./National
"The Redskins resemble Snyder. They've become smart alecks with an overly defiant approach to the media and an obnoxious approach to doing business."

11/03/14 - Phil Jackson tweets out support for Redskins protestors in Minnesota            Washington, D.C./National

11/03/14 - Washington Redskins Suing Native Americans Who Won Trademark Lawsuit Against Team's Name            Washington, D.C./National

11/03/14 - Redskins are less like a sport, more like a circus           Washington, D.C./National

11/03/14 - Redskins crash into controversy once again           Washington, D.C./National

11/03/14 - Change The Name: Dan Snyder Has Moral Obligation To Switch Redskins’ Mascot            Washington, D.C./National

11/02/14 - Washington Redskins controversy: Protesters ramp up pressure at Vikings game              Minnesota/Washington, D.C./National
11/02/14 - In Minnesota, thousands of Native Americans protest Redskins’ name              Minnesota/Washington, D.C./National
11/02/14 - Nickname protesters tell NFL: 'We are not mascots'
            Minnesota/Washington, D.C./National

10/31/14 - Minn. protest against DC football team's name could be largest ever              Minnesota/Washington, D.C./National

10/31/14 - Native American protest should force a re-think of Washington team name               Minnesota/Washington, D.C./National

10/31/14 - Advertising firm, protesters to take aim at Redskins name                Minnesota/Washington, D.C./National
View the 30 second TV spot  here: "No Honor in Racism" 

10/31/14 - Former Redskins QB Has Baffling Take On Team Name            Washington, D.C./National
10/31/14 - Jay Schroeder adds unusual twist to Washington Redskins nickname debate            Washington, D.C./National

10/30/14 - Washington Redskins are contacting South Dakota tribes            South Dakota/Washington, D.C./National

10/28/14 - Hispanic civil rights group calls on Dan Snyder to change Redskins name            Washington, D.C./National

10/28/14 - Hennepin County Calls for Redskins to Change Team Name                 Minnesota/Washington, D.C./National

10/28/14 - Navajo State Representative Wants Washington Redskins' Name Changed         Arizona/Washington, D.C./National

10/25/14 - Seeing red: Legislator promises bill that would endanger Native American mascots across Colorado, including Eaton Reds          Colorado

10/24/14 - Roger Staubach on Redskins: ‘If that name is derogatory to the Indian nation, I say get rid of it’         Washington, D.C./National

10/15/14 - Journalists Back Neshaminy Editors          Neshaminy school district, Bucks County, Pennsylvania
Letter says school officials have “open contempt for fundamental American freedoms

10/15/14 - OKC District Examines ‘Redskins’ Name at High School              Oklahoma

10/14/14 - Changing Field: NPR Details New Guidelines On What To Call That Washington Football Team         Washington, D.C./National
"I suspect that, in practice, NPR will rarely, if ever, use the R-word again. Or, it will be couched in some way."

10/12/14 - Native Americans plan to mount largest-ever Redskins protest at Vikings game              Minnesota/Washington, D.C./National

10/12/14 - Disgraced, Soon-To-Be-Former Navajo Nation President Attends 'Skins Game          Arizona/Washington, D.C./National
04/11/14 -
Navajo Nation Council opposes use of Washington Redskins moniker          Arizona/Washington, D.C./National

10/10/14 - N.J. lawmakers introduce Redskins resolutions, ask retailers to avoid the name            New Jersey/Washington, D.C./National

10/10/14 - Report: Indian booster for Washington Redskins is not an Indian         Washington, D.C./National

10/10/14 - Washington Redskins pay for Natives to attend Cardinals game         Washington, D.C./National

10/10/14 - San Diego State students petition to drop “Aztecs” nickname              California

10/09/14 - Stand Against ‘Redskins’  Team Name Gains High School Newspaper Editors ACLU AwardNeshaminy school district, Bucks County, Pennsylvania

10/08/14 - Arizona media should ban the 'R-word'           Arizona/Washington, D.C./National

10/08/14 - One Man's Opinion: The problem with the 'R' word? A Muskogee/Creek Indian explains it all for you         Washington, D.C./National

10/08/14 - One high school's insane quest to make students print 'redskins'       Neshaminy school district, Bucks County, Pennsylvania

10/08/14 - Saranac school board forgoes additional discussion on "Redskins" mascot change   Saranac, Michigan
"There is no plan to change the mascot... the mascot wasn't included because (it) really doesn't warrant more discussion."  School Supt. Maury Geiger

10/08/14 - Wiscasset selectmen approve request to change "Redskin" road name to that of  area tribe           Maine

10/08/14 - Bullying Native American Children through Racial Mascots         Washington, D.C./National
Article from Nonprofit Quarterly  

10/07/14 - Washington NFL team invited to debate nicknames at U of M          Minnesota/Washington, D.C./National  

10/07/14 - Awareness week set before Minnesota-Washington football game          Minnesota/Washington, D.C./National  

10/07/14 - Saranac Community Schools tackle use of an ethnic slur for its sports teams' name       Michigan

10/06/14 - The NFL is Teaching Us How To Bully Native American Children         Washington, D.C./National  
Children exposed to bullying in the form of racial slurs and behavior - Article from Psychology Today

10/06/14 - Law professor's Redskins complaint picks up steam            California/Washington, D.C./National  

For many more news articles visit  the Archives Section.

Cleveland, Ohio April 4, 2014 Nationally syndicated cartoon 2002


Click on image or follow this link to a collection of  American Indian sports team mascot related cartoons.

August 2000
Hank Aaron Steps Up to the Plate on the Use of Native American Names and Mascots in Sport

1937 - 1960
I
ndex of Animated Warner Brothers 
Cartoons
  Depicting "Indians"

For more resolutions and related information visit the Educators' and More Educators' Resources sections By exploiting and fueling a divisive controversy that Dartmouth College willfully helped to create, The Dartmouth Review  featured the above image and headline in its 11/28/06 edition.
The following categories provide useful information but are dormant and have not been kept current

Educators' Resources
Scholarly articles, resolutions, 
school related material

Psychological aspects 
A summary of some primary psychological issues related to the use of "Indian" sports team tokens

Archives
Past news articles, videos, books, etc.,

Chronology
Documenting many significant events over more than 30 year
Get Involved Now! Lists of "Indian" mascot users  
List of organizations  endorsing changes to "Indian" sports team, logos, mascots, nicknames, and symbols Trailblazers
List of schools and Others 
That Have Changed "Indian" Mascots
Related links
 Issue specific, American Indian, propaganda, and human rights
Site map
List of major headings and items found on this site
Action Alert   
Notices of events and activities
 


"...[M]ascot came into English as a borrowing of the French word mascotte, meaning ‘mascot, charm.’ The English word is first recorded in 1881 shortly after the French word, itself first recorded in 1867, was popularized by the opera La Mascotte, performed in December 1880. The French word in turn came from the Modern Provençal word mascoto, ‘piece of witchcraft, charm, amulet,’ a feminine diminutive of masco, ‘witch.’ This word can probably be traced back to Late Latin masca, ‘witch, specter.’ ...."
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Third Edition copyright 1992


Pulp fiction novel cover
Circa 1908

"I am not a sports team mascot. With all due respect to the teams who want to honor me by having a Native American mascot, it's outdated. It's the wrong way."
Billy Mills, Oglala Lakota
U.S. gold-medal winner in the 10,000 meters at the 1964 Olympics and inspirational spokesman  (2005)

"We simply chose an Indian as the emblem. We could have just as easily chosen any uncivilized animal."
Eighth Grade student writing about his school's mascot (1997)

"We don't view it as looking down on the race...We're not trying to make light of anyone or certainly not ridiculing anyone." 
Jim Arganbright
Athletic director at Coshocton H.S., Coshocton, Ohio (2003)
which uses an "Indian head" doormat to compliment its ethnic slur nickname.

In a survey by Indian Country Today, 81 percent of respondents indicated use of American Indian names, symbols and mascots are predominantly offensive and deeply disparaging to Native Americans. 

Pulp fiction novel cover - Circa 1908


"Cowboys finish off Redskins"

Headline from a 1998 
Washington Post sports article 

Pulp fiction novel cover
Circa 1908

"The ridicule, mockery and utter racism Native Americans are subject to because of the use of Indian mascots are intolerable."
Tex Hall, President (2003-2005)
National Congress of American Indians 

"The high school's mascot is a student dressed in a buckskin outfit who wears a mask with a big nose, large lips, large eyes, big cheeks and long, black hair." "If we thought it was offensive, we wouldn't do it."
Sam Cook, Principal 
Watkins Memorial H.S.
 Pataskala, Ohio (2003)

"People have a tendency to try to make us different. We're not. We're just like all other high school kids." 
 
Chris Dunshee, Principal
Red Lake High School
Red Lake, Minnesota, where a distraught 16 year-old American Indian student committed suicide after killing five of his peers and two adults. (2005)

Some "traditions" change.

Others do not.

slave

suffrage

illiniwek

redskins

Powerpoint presentation by Che Butler and Luhui Whitebear  created for the Oregon State Education Department  (Use keyboard arrows to navigate.  Press escape to exit)

 August 2005 -  Frequently asked questions about the institutionalized use of "Indian" sports team tokens

August 5, 2005 - NCAI Applauds NCAA Decision to Ban Use of Indian Mascots in Postseason Activities  
The National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) is the oldest, largest, and most representative American Indian organization of its kind
Complete Text United States Commission on Civil Rights Position Statement on the Use of Native American Images and Nicknames as Sports Symbols
April 2005 - Illinois University's New Nickname - "The Losers"   It's Not Just About Sports
Sept. 2004 - Schwarzenneger OKs ethnic slur: Public schools rejoice
Aug. 2004 - Washington NFL team's "Indian" namesake a fraud
 

Stereotypic "Indian head" icons like this one are among the most common and may be thought of as symbolic war trophies.


"With the hope of capitalizing on Osceola's growing fame, Weedon had the corpse of the famed war leader beheaded and laid claim to many of Osceola's personal possessions and clothes. Osceola's head passed through several hands until 1843, when it came to Dr. Valentine Mott, who put it on display and later donated it to the Medical College of New York. It disappeared following a fire in 1865." *

                                   Donald L. Fixico
Seminole, Creek, Shawnee, Sac and Fox
 Western Michigan University

*  Despite this horrific history, FSU 
continues to use a mascot called 
"Chief Osceola."


College students perform the so-called, "tomahawk chop."  This aggressive gesture, simulating the use of a weapon, originated at Florida State University and is now also seen at other public school and  professional sports venues.  Its purpose is to intimidate opponents and cheer on the fans' teams.  The "tomahawk chop" is  typically accompanied by a sing-song, Hollywood style "war chant."

According to a published news account, over the course of the school's 154 year history only 3 members of the  Seminole Tribe have graduated from FSU.   

 Other revealing insights include: 

About 75 percent of the Seminole live in Oklahoma.

There are actually three Seminole tribes in Florida and only one tribal government - the one which uses the name "Seminole Tribe of Florida" - has formally signed on to the use of the mascot.

*  The June 2005  resolution passed by the solitary Seminole Tribe of Florida regarding FSU's mascot was done so at the request of FSU President T.K. Wetherell. 

Prior to getting the June 2005 Seminole tribal endorsement Florida State announced, along with a number of other incentives, the establishment of scholarships covering 80% of tuition costs for "Seminole Scholars" recruited from reservations.

*  The Florida State Legislature includes "'the Seminole Caucus' - an unofficial but influential group of about two dozen state lawmakers who are Florida State alumni or have ties to the school."

*  "And then there's the university's impact in Tallahassee. Hundreds of Florida government officials are Florida State graduates and supporters. We deal with  these people every day, working with them to clean up the Everglades, to improve the roads that lead to our reservations and to support the public schools that many of our children attend."     
Jim Shore, general counsel of the Seminole Tribe of Florida, excerpt from remarks in NY Times op-ed piece 8/27/05

*  "The NCAA position on the use of Native American mascots, names and imagery has not changed, and the NCAA remains committed to ensuring an atmosphere of respect and sensitivity for all who participate in and attend our championships."  NCAA statement associated with withdrawing FSU from post-season championship ban.

This photograph from the movie "Schindler's List" shows actor Ben Kingsley in the role of Itzhak Stern as he walks on gravestones used by Nazis for paving.  Tomb markers from Jewish graves were broken and used as paving stones at Gestapo headquarters.  Some authorities report that Hitler was strongly influenced by the manner in which American Indians had been dealt with and viewed by the U.S. government.




UND Merchandise Item - "Fighting Sioux" Doormat 

"Embedded in the granite floor inside the main entrance to Ralph Engelstad Arena, an enormous American Indian-head logo spreads like a welcome mat in front of the larger-than-life statue of Engelstad himself."   

A major donor to the University of North Dakota (UND), 
Engelstad was a collector of Nazi memorabilia
   

 

"... racial stereotypes are offensive, no matter what their origin....Images like these have no place in today’s world.” 

White House spokesman Scott McClellan responding to Mexico's use of  the Memin Pinguin character on a postage stamp (left), June 2005.  At right is the "Chief Wahoo" icon used by the Cleveland, Ohio, major league baseball team. 

 

American Indian Sports Team Mascots © 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
All rights reserved.